Generációk a történelemben. Gyáni G, Láczay M, editors. Nyíregyháza: Hajnal István Kör – Társadalomtörténeti Egyesület, A Nyíregyházi Főiskola Gazdaság és Társadalomtudományi Kara,; in press/forthcoming.
Earle JS. Developing Graduate Economics Education from Scratch: The Case of the Central European University. In: Bourguignon F, Elkana Y, Pleskovic B, editors. Capacity building in economics education and research. Washington, D.C.: World Bank; in press/forthcoming. p. 277-99.
Earle JS. Comments on the Regional and Skill Mismatch in the Czech and Slovak Republics. In: Scarpetta S, Wörgötter A, editors. The regional dimension of unemployment in transition countries : a challenge for labour market and social policies. Paris: OECD; in press/forthcoming. p. 113-5.
Earle JS, Estrin S. Privatization and the structure of enterprise ownership. In: Granville B, Oppenheimer P, editors. Russia's post-communist economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press; in press/forthcoming. p. 173-212.
Earle JS, Sabirianova KZ. Understanding employment: level, composition, and flows. In: Rashid M, et al, editors. The Russian labor Market: Moving from crisis to recovery. Washington, D.C.: World Bank; in press/forthcoming. p. 1-43.
Earle JS, Sabirianova KZ. Understanding wages: structure, uncertainty, and inequality. In: ..., editor. The Russian labor market: moving from crisis to recovery. Washington, D.C.: World Bank; in press/forthcoming. p. 45-102.
Perczel I. The earliest Syriac reception of Dionysius. In: Coakley S, Stang C, editors. Re-thinking Dionysius the Areopagite. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell; in press/forthcoming. p. 27-42.
Loutfi A. Eugenic Nationalism and the Masculinization of Hysteria in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries. In: Marginalized Masculinities and the Nation: Global Comparisons, 1800-1945. Palgrave Macmillan; in press/forthcoming. (Global Masculinities).
Bullock E. Moral Paternalism and Neurointervention. In: Birks D, Douglas T, editors. Treatment for Crime: Philosophical Essays on Neurointerventions in Criminal Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press; in press/forthcoming.
Bullock E. The Patient-Practitioner Relationship. In: Grill K, Hanna J, editors. The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Paternalism. Oxon: Routledge; in press/forthcoming.
Bullock E. Valid Consent. In: Schaber P, Müller A, editors. The Ethics of Consent. Oxon: Routledge; in press/forthcoming.
Large D. ‘China and the CPA: Developing Peace in Sudan?’. In: James L, Nouwen S, Srinivasan S, editors. Making and Breaking Peace in Sudan: Ten Years After the Comprehensive Peace Agreement . London: Proceedings of the British Academy; in press/forthcoming.
Zentai V. National Roma Inclusion Policies in Central and Eastern Europe: Diverging Learning Paths with Residual Outcomes. In: Batory A, Cartwright A, Stone D, editors. Policy Experiments, Failures and Innovations: Beyond Accession In Central and Eastern Europe. Edward Elgar Publishing; in press/forthcoming.
Batory A. Corruption in East Central Europe: Has EU Membership Helped? In: Warf B, editor. Handbook on the Geographies of Corruption. Edward Elgar ; in press/forthcoming.

Corruption in East Central Europe: Has EU Membership Helped?

In the context of Eastern Europe, this chapter discusses whether joining the European Union has helped or hindered the growth of corruption in post-communist states. Charges of misusing EU subsidies have been leveled in countries such as Croatia and the Czech Republic. She outlines the legacy of corruption during the dark days of Soviet occupation, such as clientelistic political structures under the nomenclatura system, which persisted in the form of shadowy networks that hamper democratic reforms in the region. She also discusses new forms that have arisen in the post-accession era such as transnational criminal groups and the opportunities for graft embedded in the transition to privatization. Adherence to the EU’s legal rules was often more evident on paper than in practice. Corruption varies throughout the region: in addition to the east-west divide that distinguishes the region from low-corruption countries in Western Europe, there is also a north-south divide that places the continent’s most corrupt states in the Balkans, where state capture by corrupt officials is evident.

Medieval news : newsletter of the Department of Medieval Studies

Newsletter of the Department of Medieval Studies at CEU

Knowing and Not-knowing for your own good: The Limits of Epistemic Paternalism

Epistemic paternalism is the thesis that a paternalistic interference with an individual’s inquiry is justified when it is likely to bring about an epistemic improvement in her. In this paper I claim that in order to motivate epistemic paternalism we must first account for the value of epistemic improvements. I propose that the epistemic paternalist has two options: either epistemic improvements are valuable because they contribute to wellbeing, or they are epistemically valuable. I will argue that these options constitute the foundations of a dilemma: either epistemic paternalism collapses into general paternalism, or a distinctive project of justified epistemic paternalism is implausible.

Corporate control in Hungary

In this paper we describe the Hungarian legal framework regulating disclosure of information about listed firms at the Budapest Stock Exchange (BSE), and we analyze the concentration and types of blockholders at these firms for the years 1996-2000. Disclosure rules on the BSE became EU-compatible only very recently, and so far indirect holdings were not reported. The concentration of direct ownership is nonetheless rather high, the largest owner having 46.2 percent on average in May 2000. While this figure is similar to the corresponding levels in continental Europe, it is more unusual that the second and third largest blockholders also have large shares (on average 20.2 and 10.4 at the same date). Concentration was quite stable during 1996-1999, while it decreased somewhat in 2000. The most prevalent type of owner is foreign investor, which had over 50 percent of all blockholdings in 2000, although domestic private blockholders and the state are also present in a significant number of firms.

Project for Preserving the Manuscripts of the Syrian Christians in India

In Kerala, South India, one finds many thousands Syriac, Malayalam, Malayanma, Kolezhuttu, Vattezhuttu manuscripts of older and more recent date, all belonging to the autochthonous communities of the St Thomas Christians, a seven million-strong minority group that has lived organically incorporated into the local Hindu society for almost two thousand years. Because of the humid, tropical climate and other factors, these manuscripts are greatly endangered. The present complex international project, based on cooperation between Indian, German, Hungarian and American institutions, aims at saving these manuscripts both in their content and in their physical reality.Its means are as follows: as a first step, the tasks of digitising and describing the manuscripts are undertaken; as a second step, an organised electronic data-base is established and the most important manuscripts are published in facsimile editions, together with their respective scholarly descriptions; in the third stage of the process, the data obtained are used for clarifying many an obscure point of the history of Christianity in Kerala, as well as for publishing, translating and interpreting the newly discovered texts. The new information issuing from the treatment of the Indian Syrian manuscripts sheds light not only on local history, but also on the communication network that has linked, over the centuries, this minority to all branches of the Syrian Christians living in a diaspora all over the Middle East.This is an open-ended project, the keywords of which are preservation, access and recycling. Thus, besides preservation, by means of open-access electronic publications, it makes the manuscripts accessible for the wider scholarly community. At the same time, the benefits resulting from the publications are returned to the proprietors, on the condition that they spend the proceeds on the conservation of the original manuscripts, in their physical reality.

Litera, az irodalmi portál

Portalsite for contemporary literatureFounding editor

The Working Hours of German Migrants: Temporary Versus Permanent

Migration is often viewed as an investment decision. Temporary migrants can be expected to invest less in accumulating human capital specific to the host country. Instead, they work more hours in order to accumulate savings and invest in financial capital that can be transferred back to their country of origin upon return. In this paper, using German panel data, we explore how temporary migrants differ from permanent migrants in their labor supply decisions and behavior. Upon correcting for endogeneity bias, temporary migrants are found to work more hours than permanent ones. This result supports the human capital theory and a household production model of migration where migrants may be temporary by choice and not because of legal restrictions or even a bad experience in the labor market.

What's left of human nature? A post-essentialist, pluralist and interactive account of a contested concept

Human nature has always been a foundational issue for philosophy. What does it mean to have a human nature? Is the concept the relic of a bygone age? What is the use of such a concept? What are the epistemic and ontological commitments people make when they use the concept? In What’s Left of Human Nature? Maria Kronfeldner offers a philosophical account of human nature that defends the concept against contemporary criticism. In particular, she takes on challenges related to social misuse of the concept that dehumanizes those regarded as lacking human nature (the dehumanization challenge); the conflict between Darwinian thinking and essentialist concepts of human nature (the Darwinian challenge); and the consensus that evolution, heredity, and ontogenetic development results from nurture and nature. After answering each of these challenges, Kronfeldner presents a revisionist account of human nature that minimizes dehumanization and does not fall back on outdated biological ideas. Her account is post-essentialist because it eliminates the concept of an essence of being human; pluralist in that it argues that there are different things in the world that correspond to three different post-essentialist concepts of human nature; and interactive because it understands nature and nurture as interacting at the developmental, epigenetic, and evolutionary levels. On the basis of this, she introduces a dialectical concept of an ever-changing and “looping” human nature. Finally, noting the essentially contested character of the concept and the ambiguity and redundancy of the terminology, she wonders if we should simply eliminate the term “human nature” altogether.

Karpati A, Dorner H. Developing epistemic agencies of teacher trainees. Using the Mentored Innovation Model. In: Moen A, Morch A, Paavola S, editors. Collaborative knowledge Creation. Practices, Tools, Concepts. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers; In Press.

Why do we remember? The communicative function of episodic memory

Episodic memory has been analyzed in a number of different ways in both philosophy and psychology, and most controversy has centered on its self-referential, ‘autonoetic’ character. Here, we offer a comprehensive characterization of episodic memory in representational terms, and propose a novel functional account on this basis. We argue that episodic memory should be understood as a distinctive epistemic attitude taken towards an event simulation. On this view, episodic memory has a metarepresentational format and should not be equated with beliefs about the past. Instead, empirical findings suggest that the contents of human episodic memory are often constructed in the service of the explicit justification of such beliefs. Existing accounts of episodic memory function that have focused on explaining its constructive character through its role in ‘future-oriented mental time travel’ neither do justice to its capacity to ground veridical beliefs about the past nor to its representational format. We provide an account of the metarepresentational structure of episodic memory in terms of its role in communicative interaction. The generative nature of recollection allows us to represent and communicate the reasons for why we hold certain beliefs about the past. In this process, autonoesis corresponds to the capacity to determine when and how to assert epistemic authority in making claims about the past. A domain where such claims are indispensable are human social engagements. Such engagements commonly require the justification of entitlements and obligations, which is often possible only by explicit reference to specific past events.

Motor activation during action perception depends on action interpretation

Since the discovery of motor mirroring, the involvement of the motor system in action interpretation has been widely discussed. While some theories proposed that motor mirroring underlies human action understanding, others suggested that it is a corollary of action interpretation. We put these two accounts to the test by employing superficially similar actions that invite radically different interpretations of the underlying intentions. Using an action-observation task, we assessed motor activation (as indexed by the suppression of the EEG mu rhythm) in response to actions typically interpreted as instrumental (e.g., grasping) or referential (e.g., pointing) towards an object. Only the observation of instrumental actions resulted in enhanced mu suppression. In addition, the exposure to grasping actions failed to elicit mu suppression when they were preceded by speech, suggesting that the presence of communicative signals modulated the interpretation of the observed actions. These results suggest that the involvement of sensorimotor cortices during action processing is conditional on a particular (instrumental) action interpretation, and that action interpretation relies on inferential processes and top-down mechanisms that are implemented outside of the motor system.

"Your Loving Uncle" : Gideon Brecher, Moritz Steinschneider and the Moravian Haskalah. In: Leicht R, Freudenthal G, editors. Studies on Steinschneider: Moritz Steinschneider and the Emergence of the Science of Judaism in Nineteenth-Century Germany. Leiden & Boston: Brill; 2112. p. 37-80.

Policy Experiments, Failures and Innovations: Beyond Accession in Central and Eastern Europe

'Policy Experiments, Failures and Innovations’ takes a policy studies perspective for considering the EU’s post-communist member states’ experiences since accession. The volume analyses policy transfer processes and expands the new and growing sub-field of policy failure by interrogating the binary ideas of ‘failure’ and ‘success’ in the context of the Central Eastern European (CEE) transition, democratic consolidation and European Union membership. Contributions in the volume consider the extent to which external models have had real traction in the political economies and societies of the CEE countries. The volume also considers the ways external models were adapted, transformed or sometimes abandoned in response to unexpected difficulties in implementation. It is therefore a book about set-backs, real or perceived policy failures, as well as innovations and unexpected outcomes in a number of important policy areas in the ‘new’ member states of the EU.

Kronfeldner M. Divide and conquer: The authority of nature and why we disagree about human nature. In: Lewens T, Hannon E, editors. Why We Disagree about Human Nature. Oxford: Oxford University Press (in press) ; 2018. p. 187-208.

Divide and conquer: The authority of nature and why we disagree about human nature

The term ‘human nature’ can refer to different things in the world and fulfil different epistemic roles. Human nature can refer to a classificatory nature (classificatory criteria that determine the boundaries of, and membership in, a biological or social group called ‘human’), a descriptive nature (a bundle of properties describing the respective group’s life form), or an explanatory nature (a set of factors explaining that life form). This chapter will first introduce these three kinds of ‘human nature’, together with seven reasons why we disagree about human nature. In the main, this chapter focuses on the explanatory concept of human nature, which is related to one of the seven reasons for disagreement, namely, the scientific authority inherent in the term ‘nature’. I will examine why, in a number of historical contexts, it was attractive to refer to ‘nature’ as an explanatory category, and why this usage has led to the continual contestation of the term within the sciences. The claim is that even if the contents of talk about ‘nature’ varied historically, the term’s pragmatic function of demarcation stayed the same. The term ‘nature’ conveys scientific authority over a territory; ‘human nature’ is a concept used to divide causes, as well as experts, and thereby conquer others who threaten to invade one’s epistemic territory. Analysing this demarcation, which has social as well as epistemic aspects, will help us to understand why the explanatory role has been important and why it is unlikely that people will ever agree on either the meaning or the importance of ‘human nature’ as an explanatory category.

Kronfeldner M. Explaining Creativity. In: Gaut B, Kieran M, editors. Routledge Handbook on Creativity and Philosophy . New York: Routledge; 2018. p. 213-29.

Explaining Creativity

Creativity has often been declared, especially by philosophers, as the last frontier of science. The assumption is that it will defy explanation forever. I will defend two claims in order to oppose this assumption and to demystify creativity: (1) the perspective that creativity cannot be explained wrongly identifies creativity with what I shall call metaphysical freedom; (2) the Darwinian approach to creativity, a prominent naturalistic account of creativity, fails to give an explanation of creativity, because it confuses conceptual issues with explanation. I will close with some remarks on the status and differences in some explanations available in contemporary cognitive science.

Referendums in the 'new' member states: Politicisation after a decade of support

In 2003, nine of the ten countries joining the European Union (EU) in the following year held referendums on the question of accession, all resulting in a clear, strong popular endorsement of joining the Union – albeit in many cases with very low participation. In the decade since then, however, the landscape has changed. A series of crises, from the financial and economic crisis of 2007-08 to the ongoing migration crisis undermined confidence in the EU’s effectiveness in tackling problems the bloc is facing. CEE parties use the EU as scapegoat for unpopular policies, claim to stand up for ‘the national interest’ in Brussels, and/or mobilise national (or nationalistic) sentiment against what is portrayed as homogenizing tendencies or forced ‘supranationalisation’. How these dynamics play out in the context of referendums is the subject of this chapter.

Kurowska X. EU Foreign Policy . In: Heinelt H, Münch S, editors. Handbook of European Policies. Interpretive Approaches to the EU. Edward Elgar Publishing ; 2018.
Svensson S. Euroregions -- Institutional transfer and reinterpreted norms in East Central Europe. In: Policy Experiments, Failures and Innovations Beyond Accession in Central and Eastern Europe . Cheltenham: Edward Elgar; 2018. p. 131-51.
Krizsan A. Translating Domestic violence norms in five countries of East Central Europe. In: Batory A, Cartwright A, Stone D, editors. Policy Experiments, Failures and Innovations Beyond Accession in Central and Eastern Europe. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing; 2018. p. 66-87. (New Horizons in Public Policy).

Translating Domestic violence norms in five countries of East Central Europe

This chapter looks at norms translation processes in the field of domestic violence. Using data from five countries of East Central Europe (ECE): Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Poland and Romania, proposes a multi-pronged cross-directional international influence model that challenges traditional top down understandings of international influence. I argue that international influence is not direct, linear and top-down but constructed and negotiated in processes of interaction between international actors and domestic agents, where translation processes influence the direction of policy change. International influence provides content to reforms through defining, communicating and monitoring norms, and through facilitating the production of evidence for domestic violence as a policy problem. In order to understand the nature of international influence, we have to look beyond norms transfer at two additional mechanisms through which it impacts domestic policy processes. First, international influence can create ‘political opportunities’ to enable domestic mobilization for policy change. Second, domestic agents are key in translation of international norms. Enabling such agency becomes critical in processes of norms translation. The chapter shows how international influence understood along these lines contributes to variation in policy progress achieved in different contexts.

Krizsan A, Popa RM. Contesting Gender Equality in Domestic-Violence Policy Debates: Comparing Three Countries in Central and Eastern Europe. In: Verloo M, editor. Varieties of Opposition to Gender Equality in Europe. New York: Routledge; 2018. (Gender and Comparative Politics).

Contesting Gender Equality in Domestic-Violence Policy Debates: Comparing Three Countries in Central and Eastern Europe

This chapter looks at opposition to gender equality as a component of political opportunity structures, a factor that conditions women’s movement mobilization either by limiting the opportunities available to it or by serving as its catalyst. In order to understand how opposition can become an aspect of political opportunities we analyze opposition to women’s movement mobilizatin for domestic violence policy progress in four countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The analysis adopts a wide understanding of opposition to gender equality, to include not just explicitly articulated challenges to gender equality claims but also challenges that at face value do not address gender equality, but still indirectly threaten a gender equality understanding of domestic violence policy. In order to understand contestation to gender equality in this field the chapter looks at frames opposing a gendered understanding of domestic violence, and actors behind them, state as well as non-state opponents. To understand dynamics between opposition and movement strategies it looks at coping and reaction mechanisms used by movement actors in the presence of opposition. The chapter argues first that opposition influences the meanings articulated by movement actors in their claims. Discursive structures that are oppositional or oppositional framing used by strong actors set boundaries to meanings that can be articulated in feminist mobilization for change. Secondly, it shows that opposition also influences strategies of mobilization including coalition formation, institutional alliances, as well as the mechanisms of influence. Overall this chapter demonstrates the importance of looking at opposition over time rather than as a snapshot. Over time, changes in the specific form opposition takes, and the extent it is gendered, and mobilization patterns connected to it, highlight aspects of temporality of opposition and the extent to which it is historically contingent, and dynamically constructed in arenas populated by movements and their allies, states and non-state opposition actors.

Gender equality and family in populist radical right agendas – similarities and differences in European Parliamentary debates 2014.

The chapter addresses the divergence and convergence of the framings of gender equality in nationalist and nativist discourses in the 2014 European Parliamentary elections. It compares how representatives of populist radical right parties in Croatia, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain, frame gender equality and family issues in relation to migration and mobility in their electoral campaigns for the EP and during the first months of the 2014-2018 parliamentary cycle. Gender and family issues are part of the programs, campaigns and statements of the populist radical right, less prominently in the Nordic countries but quite centrally in the East, Central and Southern European countries as well as Germany. The analysis shows how rather than using similar gender and family frames, gender and family issues are instrumentalized to serve various exclusive forms of nationalism, anti-colonialist claims, or nationalist demographic sustainability arguments.

Lawrence J. Of Politics and Pluralism: Governmentality and the EU Legal Order. In: Research Handbook on Legal Pluralism and EU Law. Edward Elgar; 2018. p. 243-56.
CSABA L. COMPARATIVE TRANSITION STUDIES: PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE. In: Conflict and Integration as Conditions and Processes in Transition Societies in Eastern Europe and East Asia. Seoul: Seoul National University Press; 2018. 23.
Tajti T. Shareholders' Agreements in Hungary - National Report. In: International Handbook on Shareholders' Agreements - Regulation, Practice and Comparative Analysis. Vol I. Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter; 2018. p. 335-89.
Fetzer T, Sardoc M. Patriotism and Economy. In: Handbook of Patriotism. Cham, Springer; 2018.
Fetzer T, Berger S. Economic Europeanness. In: Fetzer T, Berger S, editors. Nationalism and the Economy: Explorations into a neglected relationship . Budapest: CEU Press; 2018. p. 269-89.
Fetzer T, Berger S. Nationalism in political economy scholarship. In: Fetzer T, Berger S, editors. Nationalism and the Economy: Explorations into a neglected relationship. CEU Press; 2018. p. 43-63.
Fetzer T, Berger S. Introduction. In: Fetzer T, Berger S, editors. Nationalism and the Economy: Explorations into a neglected relationship. CEU Press; 2018. p. 1-20.
Donmez P. Politicisation as Governing Strategy Versus Resistance: Demystifying Capitalist Social Relations and the State in Turkey. In: Comparing Strategies of (De)Politicisation in Europe: Governance, Resistance and Anti-politics. Palgrave Macmillan; 2018. p. 155-88.

Politicisation as Governing Strategy Versus Resistance: Demystifying Capitalist Social Relations and the State in Turkey

This chapter argues that the recent developments in Turkey towards what some deem “authoritarian”/“illiberal” form of governing cannot be divorced from their relationality with the post-2001 depoliticisation strategy in economic policymaking or the large-scale politicisation of social relations since the summer of 2013. Proposing a critical approach to (de)politicisation within a broader understanding of the crisis and restructuring of social relations, the chapter presents an account of the progressive forms of politicisation that aim to demystify the capitalist and class character of social relations. Against this background, the chapter assesses the unfolding politicisation in counter-hegemonic form as manifested in Gezi protests as well as the enclosure of the political terrain with the governing strategy of politicisation in the post-2013 context.

Bőgel G, Tomka J. Szakértői munka: kapu a tudáshoz. Dobrai K, László G, Sipos N, editors. Pécs: Pécsi Tudományegyetem Közgazdaságtudományi Kar, Vezetés- és Szervezéstudományi Intézet; 2018.

Szakértői munka: kapu a tudáshoz

A hivatást jelentő szakértői szakmák képviselői (például orvosok, ügyvédek, vállalati tanácsadók, papok) hozzáférést biztosítanak az emberiség felhalmozott tudásához. Ennek a hozzáférésnek, vagyis a szolgáltatásként végzett szakértői munkának a történelem során jellegzetes modellje alakult ki. Ez a modell többféle hatás eredőjeként időről időre átalakult, és átalakulóban van ma is. Tanulmányunk egy bibliai, tehát nagyon régi, de ma is sokat emlegetett példából kiindulva megvizsgálja, hogyan alakult ki a szakértői munka mai modellje, mi az oka annak, hogy ez a modell ma ismét változik, végezetül röviden szól a szakértői értékrend és etika egyes kérdéseiről is. A változás okait tekintve a technológiai fejlődésre és annak társadalmi következményeire koncentrálunk, mondanivalónkat ilyen jellegű példákkal illusztráljuk. Alapvető és tartós változásokra számíthatunk - vajon fel kell készülnünk egy „hivatások utáni”, „poszt professzionális” társadalomra?

Was sollen Philosoph/innen tun? Kommentar zur Podiumsdiskussion „Bedrohtes Denken“ (DGPhil Kongress 2017)

Wie können Philosoph/innen mit der Bedrohung der akademischen Freiheit umgehen, die von rechtspopulistischen Strömungen (in Deutschland, Europa und weltweit) und autoritären Staaten (wie der Türkei und Ungarn) ausgeht? – Diese Frage stand im Zentrum der Podiumsdiskussion „Bedrohtes Denken“, die während des DGPhil Kongresses in Berlin am Tag der Bundestagswahl 2017 stattfand. Es war eine Diskussion, deren Ende von der bedrückenden Nachricht überschattet wurde, die rechtsextreme AfD werde drittstärkste Kraft im neuen Bundestag. Angesichts dieses zutiefst beunruhigenden Wahlergebnisses glauben wir, dass es wichtig ist, diese Diskussion weiterzuführen. Dieser Kommentar soll dazu einen Anstoß geben.

Deciding on the European Semester: the European Council, the Council and the enduring asymmetry between economic and social policy issues

This contribution investigates the asymmetrical relationship between economic and social aspects under the European Semester by looking at the roles of the European Council and the Council between 2010 and 2016. Drawing on the theories of deliberative and new intergovernmentalism, this asymmetry is associated with an uneven evolution of the co-ordination infrastructure, notably the varying degree to which key policy issues are subject to informal policy dialogue. Not only are finance ministers better placed to conduct policy dialogue, they also control the European Semester policy priorities more effectively than their colleagues in the Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs Council (EPSCO). Finance ministers also are more closely linked to discussions at the highest political level, the European Council. Social affairs committees and the Commission managed to gain a greater role at the expert level and to integrate more social issues into policy recommendations. Yet, these successes are not matched by higher level political endorsement.

Studying Europe after the fall: four thoughts on post-EU studies

What would European Union (EU) scholars study if the EU were to fall? This contribution does not predict the demise of the Union, but rather engages EU scholars in a thought-experiment. It considers what would happen to EU studies and the scholarly community if the EU were to disintegrate. Moreover, the possible contours of post-EU studies are outlined. That discussion is based around the four ideas of destruction, diagnosis, diversion and renewal. If the EU were to fall, the argument goes, the questions that drive EU scholars would endure and evolve rather than evaporate. The challenges that triggered the collapse of the EU would be likely to haunt former member states and other organizational structures for regional and international co-operation.

When Kamay Met Hill: Organization Ethics in Practice

The Kamay and Hill insider trading conviction in Australia highlights many of the issues and problems involved in the prevention, detection and prosecution of insider trading. The case uniquely highlights how ethical behaviour is instilled at home, in school and in society, and the need for ethical responsibility at the personal and organisational level to complement legal rules and enforcement. We use the Kamay and Hill case to explore the reasons behind the failure of the traditional top-down approach to insider trading prevention, where institutional ethical codes of conduct largely reflect and rely upon national rules, norms, and regulation. We propose a bottom-up approach to ensure that individual and organisational behaviour is ethical, where emphasis is not on compliance but on a set of core ethical values that allow individual and corporate expression. It is our strong belief that compliance cannot replace ethics.

Addressing COP21 using a Stock and Oil Market Integration Index Energy Policy

COP21 implementation should lead to a decline in the future demand for fossil fuels. One key implication for investors is how to best manage this risk. We construct a monthly integration index and then demonstrate that oil investors can offset adverse oil price risk by holding various global stock portfolios. The portfolios are formed from eight different combinations of developed and emerging stock markets. We show that measuring the degree of stock-oil market integration for these portfolios is critical to managing the time-varying degrees of integration that exist between oil and stock markets. Importantly, under normal market conditions, when markets are segmented, there is the opportunity for oil investors to diversify the additional energy price risk, caused by COP21, through the purchase of stocks. The optimal oil-stock diversified portfolio provides risk-adjusted positive benefits to investors, with the weightings changing over time as COP21 implementation proceeds.

Crisis of Capitalism and (De-)Politicisation of Monetary Policymaking: Reflections from Hungary and Turkey

This article explores the changes in monetary policymaking in Hungary and Turkey in the context of the post-2008 global financial crisis and restructuring. Both countries went through a thorough restructuring process in the pre-2008 context. While this process has introduced and consolidated depoliticised forms of governing to a certain degree in both countries, we suggest that the latest crisis has contributed to the emergence of a politicisation process. In the Hungarian case, these processes are reflected in both discursive attempts and the instalment of visible centralised control over the management of money. In Turkey, intensifying discursive attempts to politicize monetary policy have not led to an explicit change in the formally depoliticised character of central banking until recently but politicised other policy areas. In both countries, the process has accompanied the entrenchment of increasingly oppressive discourse and practices as part of the overall management of the crisis-ridden capitalist social relations. The paper aims to explore these similarities and differences within a critical political economy approach to state, governing strategies and (de)politicisation and to contribute to advancing research beyond the established case studies in the existing literature.

Digitális transzformáció a mezőgazdaságban

Diffusion of technology innovation is an important subject of economics. We focus on information and communication technology in this study and analyze how Big Data transforms agriculture. Our approach is not technical but managerial paying special attention to decision-making. The study describes how the development of computers and other electronic tools generated favorable conditions for the diffusion of precision solutions in the sector, what kind of results could be observed in the last decades of the 20th century, and how the Big Data phenomenon launched a new wave of innovation at the beginning of the 21st. We separate the main phases of agriculture’s digital transformation, analyze key trends and developments, discuss the factors influencing the diffusion of digital technologies, and what stakeholders must do for better and faster adaptation. The importance of further research in the field of digital farming and the social consequences of digital transformation is highlighted at the end.

Mapping the conflict of raptor conservation and recreational shooting in the Batumi Bottleneck, Republic of Georgia

Illegal use of natural resources threatens biodiversity and often leads to conservation conflicts between affected parties. Such a conflict is emerging in the Batumi Bottleneck in the Republic of Georgia, where every autumn more than one million migrating birds of prey funnel above a handful of villages, and where thousands of these birds fall victim to illegal shooting. As a first step towards resolving this conflict, utilizing semi-structured interviews, we map the goals and opinions of relevant stakeholders associated with raptor migration in the bottleneck. Our results show that most stakeholders, except some local hunters, are on common ground considering the shooting unacceptable, but articulate different preferences concerning a solution, which hinged on institutional and enforcement issues. The hunters expressed a wide spectrum of responses concerning their involvement and motivation in raptor shooting, the role and importance of hunting in their lives, and preferred mitigation actions. The most urgent issues to be addressed via conservation actions are the wide-scale lack of awareness of the conflict, the potential loss of species, and the risk of conflict escalation.

Taking the first steps: Initial mapping of human-wildlife interaction of the Mauritius Fruit Bat Pteropus niger (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) in Mauritius by conservation organizations

Interactions between people and wildlife have both positive and negative aspects. Negative interactions, commonly termed human-wildlife conflict (HWC), have increased in recent decades due to a number of factors including difficulties in identifying and communicating the complexities of stakeholder values and positions over wildlife and its management. Here, we present the perceptions of two conservation organizations on the landscape of HWC involving the threatened Mauritius Fruit Bat Pteropus niger, Kerr 1792 in Mauritius, including damage to fruit crops and controversial government culls in 2015 and 2016. Participants identified 18 stakeholders in the conflict varying in importance and influence, examined where and how hostility is manifested, and delineated both perceived and real costs of the conflict. Additionally, 13 environmental and 17 social risk factors associated with the conflict were categorized, along with potential policy and management options for mitigation. We argue that initial in-house workshops are advantageous in understanding conservation conflicts before extending dialogue with other stakeholders.

Communicative mind-reading in preverbal infants

Pragmatic theories of communication assume that humans evolved a species-unique inferential capacity to express and recognize intentions via communicative actions. We show that 13-month-old non-verbal infants can interpret the turn-taking exchange of variable tone sequences between unfamiliar agents as indicative of communicative transfer of goal-relevant information from a knowledgeable to a naïve agent pursuing the goal. No such inference of information transfer was drawn by the infants, however, when a) the agents exchanged fully predictable identical signal sequences, which does not enable transmission of new information, or b) when no goal-relevant contextual change was observed that would motivate its communicative transmission. These results demonstrate that young infants can recognize communicative interactions between third-party agents and possess an evolved capacity for communicative mind-reading that enables them to infer what contextually relevant information has been transmitted between the agents even without language.

With Eyes Wide Shut. Job Searching Qualified Roma and Employee Seeking Companies

This article is dedicated to Julia Szalai who researches the underlying reasons, consequences and mechanisms of the social exclusion of the Roma in Central and East European societies. Her work and her writings serve as a compass for those who examine problems of social exclusion, including the authors of this article. The present paper discusses position of the Roma on the Hungarian job-market, focusing on highly-qualified young Roma within the context of the business sphere. Our knowledge is informed by the first results of an initiative which creates bridges between disadvantaged social groups and the business sector through pro-active measures. The initiative mobilizes multinational companies, business trainers, NGOs promoting social inclusion, and academics. Both the initiative and our study intend to pursue a subtle understanding of the tangible and hidden obstacles that highly educated young Roma encounter when seeking employment, and of the dilemmas that multinational companies face in relating to these prospective employees.

Neutrollization: Industrialized trolling as a pro-Kremlin strategy of desecuritization

This article considers the significance of trolling for security processes through a contextual analysis of industrialized pro-Kremlin trolling in the Russian blogosphere. The publicity surrounding Russia’s hacking activities in international politics conceals the significance of the domestic trolling culture in Russia and its role in the ‘trolling turn’ in Russia’s foreign policy. We contextually identify the practice of ‘neutrollization’ – a type of localized desecuritization where the regime adopts trolling to prevent being cast as a societal security threat by civil society. Neutrollization relies on counterfeit internet activism, ostensibly originating from the citizenry, that produces political disengagement by breeding radical doubt in a manner that is non-securitizing. Rather than advocating a distinct political agenda, and in contrast to conventional understandings of the operations of propaganda, neutrollization precludes the very possibility of meaning, obviating the need to block the internet in an openly authoritarian manner. It operates by preventing perlocution – that is, the social consequences of the security speech act. This prevention is achieved through the breaking or disrupting of the context in which acts of securitization could possibly materialize, and is made possible by a condition of ‘politics without telos’ that is different from the varieties of depoliticization more familiar in Western societies.

Frontiers of Democracy: Embedding Democratic Values in Central and Eastern Europe. Good practices and limits of transferability

Democratization is a complex process that entails both critical choices of new institutions, and the rooting of those institutions in the societal ethos. Much of the literature on democratic transition, consolidation and Europeanization has been dominated by the study of legal and institutional crafting, especially concerning the post-communist and post-Soviet countries of Central and Eastern Europe, where not only political but also economic and social institutions had to be created in the process of the fundamental transformations taking place after 1989. However, the footprint of a healthy democracy cannot be measured only in terms of institutional performance. It has to also include citizens’ attitudes to and engagement with the new institutions, and, in fact, a general change of mentality that reflects their attachment to the new system. It is people’s attachment to democratic values that may keep governments in check and preclude them from slipping toward populist and antidemocratic measures, when the possibility and temptation to reshape democratic institutions arise. This volume, focusing on embedding democratic values through the process of democratic transition in the four Visegrad countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia) and in Ukraine and Moldova, is the outcome of the project titled “Frontiers of Democracy: Embedding Democratic Values in Moldova and Ukraine” led by the Center for European Neighborhood Studies of the Central European University, and implemented in cooperation with the EUROPEUM Institute for European Policy, the Foreign Policy Association of Moldova, the Institute of Euro-Atlantic Cooperation, the Research Center of the Slovak Foreign Policy Association and the Kosciuszko Institute. Beyond a general overview about how democratic values become rooted in societies during transition and specifically during transition in Central and Eastern Europe, the chapters of this volume discuss youth political participation and socialization, civic education, the role of media in democratization and the development of values such as tolerance and diversity, or transparency and accountability. The book was published with the kind support of the International Visegrad Fund.

Gender : war. Pető A, editor. Farmington Hills (MI): Macmillan Reference; 2017.